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Genes are the most basic organization of genetic information, and research on genes is closely related to all human health. The identification of human disease-related genes has received great attention from academic to industrial researchers in recent years, and everyone expects to get breakthrough results to fight disease.


Comparative genomics

Mutual comparisons between genomes have led to some surprising biological discoveries. A sequence is said to be conserved between species if a particular DNA sequence or DNA motif occurs on all branches of a phylogenetic tree. The evolutionary conservation of a DNA sequence suggests that species with these sequences have corresponding natural selection advantages. It also suggests that it has important functions. This may be a protein coding sequence or regulatory region. Experimental studies of these sequences have shown that some of them are transcribed into small RNAs, and the function of these small RNAs has not been studied.


The identification of similar sequences (including many genes) between species are distant in two phylogenetic trees and are not in the same evolutionary branch which contributes to the creation of new theories that are thought to be through horizontal gene transfer and acquirement. Although these genes appear to be transferred from archaea to eubacteria, this phenomenon is particularly pronounced among bacteria. It is also noted that bacterial genes are present in the eukaryotic nuclear genome, and these genes are commonly used to encode mitochondria and chloroplast proteins, a phenomenon that also supports the endogenous symbiosis of organelle origin. The theory holds that the mitochondria and chloroplasts found in animal and plant genomes were originally free-living bacteria, which were taken up by ancestral eukaryotic cells and later gradually became an integral part of eukaryotic cells.


Structural genomics

Structural Genomics is an important component and research field of genomics. It is a science that determines gene composition and gene localization through gene mapping and nucleotide sequence analysis. Structural genomics seeks to determine the three-dimensional structure of each protein by studying a given genomic coding. This genome-based approach allows for a structurally determined high-throughput approach through a combination of experimental and modeling methods. The main difference between structural genomics and traditional structural prediction is that structural genomics attempts to determine the structure of each protein encoded by the genome, rather than focusing on a particular protein.


Functional genomics

Functional genomics research, often referred to as postgenomics research, uses information and artifacts provided by structural genomics to comprehensively analyze gene function at the genomic or systemic level.


Genetic similarity

The academic community often uses the DNA sequence of a particular species to share the percentage of human sequences to indicate similarity. This number shows the same percentage of base pairs between the two species. Listed here are genetic similarities to humans and list the sources of data.

These data are derived from different secondary data sources and obtained in different ways (e.g. DNA-DNA hybridization or sequence alignment), which may result in different results between comparisons between the same species. Therefore, these data should only be used for approximate similarity.


Finally, related research from previous DNA cloning and whole human genome sequencing to digital PCR, microarray analysis, small interfering RNA and CRISPR in recent years, whether it is tools or methods, in genomics research have long-term progress. Today, when precision medicine is on the rise, single-cell-based genomics research has greatly contributed to the advancement of therapeutic techniques. The study of ctDNA also contributes to the diagnosis and detection of cancer.

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