Immunology is a major branch of biomedicine that explores the immune response of immune systems in various organs to resist "non-self" foreign bodies. It mainly discusses the physiological functions played by the immune system in health or illness; some diseases caused by lesions in the immune system (such as autoimmune reactions, allergic reactions, immune dysfunction); in vivo or in vitro ( In vitro) The immune system constitutes the physical, chemical, and physiological properties of a molecule. Immunology has also been widely used in the following fields.
Clinical immunology mainly studies diseases caused by the immune system, or other medically-induced diseases caused by the immune system. Most of the immune diseases that occur can be divided into two major items. First, the defects in the defense of the immune system, in this part of the defect, will not be able to produce immune response (such as chronic granulomatous disease) and autoimmunity (autoimmunity), that is, the immune system attacks its own antigen ( For example, systemic lupus erythematosus, arthritis rheumatoid arthritis or myasthenia gravis (severe disease). The other is because other immune systems develop lesions, including causing various allergic reactions, such as reactions to harmless molecular compounds (such as asthma and allergies) or a dramatic transition.
AIDS is a famous immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. It is understood that AIDS is caused by lymphocytes (helper T cells) containing CD4+ (CD4 positive) receptors, macrophages and some kinds of B cells infected and destroyed by HIV infection, and finally the immune system is finally caused. collapse.
Clinical immunology has also studied a number of methods to avoid excessively intense immune responses caused by transplantation of many organ tissues. Such as: avoiding allograft or xenograft after xenograft rejection and destruction by the immune system
The use of immune system components to treat diseases, also known as immunotherapy. In the treatment of cancer, it is often accompanied by chemotherapy (chemotherapy) or radiotherapy. However, usually immunotherapy is used as an immunosuppression for patients like AIDS, or other immunodeficiency diseases, or autoimmune disorders.